A seizure is an uncontrolled electrical discharge from brain cells. It causes mental and physical symptoms. Epilepsy is a group of long-term (chronic) conditions in which a person has unprovoked, recurring seizures. Find out more about epilepsy and seizures by taking this quiz.
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#1. The symptoms of a seizure may differ from person to person, but seizures are caused by the same thing:
The correct answer is A. A sudden change in how brain cells send electrical signals to one another.
If an electroencephalogram (EEG) is done when there is seizure activity, the change is seen as unusual bursts of energy. These bursts can occur in one area of the brain or throughout the brain. The symptoms of the seizure depend on the part of the brain affected. Seizures that happen in just one area (localized) are called simple partial seizures. They remain in one part of the brain. They don’t greatly affect consciousness. Complex partial seizures begin in one part of the brain, but spread to other parts. They can affect consciousness. Generalized seizures involve the entire brain from the beginning. They usually affect consciousness. They may cause muscle jerking. Normal brain function does not return until these bursts of energy have stopped and the brain has had time to recover. Seizures can occur while a person is awake, or while a person is sleeping.
#2. Seizures can be caused by:
Ans E .
Many severe injuries and illnesses, such as a tumor, infection, or stroke, can cause seizures. Some genetic conditions may cause epilepsy. Often, no definite cause for the seizures can be found. When seizures continue on a chronic basis without a clear, underlying cause, the condition is called epilepsy.
#3. Epilepsy is most likely to begin in which age group?
Ans E .
Epilepsy is often thought of as a childhood condition, but it can develop at any age. About 3 in 10 cases develop in early childhood and in the teen years. People older than 65 also are more at risk for epilepsy .
#4. A person with epilepsy needs how much extra sleep a night?
Ans – D.
You often don’t need extra sleep if you have epilepsy. But you should try to get enough sleep each night. If you stay up late several nights in a row, you greatly increase your risk of having a seizure. Healthcare providers often ask their patients to stay up late before having an EEG exam because a lack of sleep increases the chances that seizure activity will show up during the exam. Talk with your healthcare provider if you feel tired even with enough sleep. Your medicine dose may need to be changed.
#5. Which statement about driving with epilepsy is true?
Each countries rules are different. But they often require that you be seizure-free for a specific amount of time before you are allowed to drive. Some states require a healthcare provider’s note.
#6. Although exercise is good for people with epilepsy, some sports may be dangerous. Which of these sports falls in that area?
Ans D .
Mountain climbing is risky both because of the danger of falling if you have a seizure and because the thinner air at higher altitudes can put you at greater risk for a seizure. Swimming and other water sports are risky because you can drown if you lose consciousness. Contact sports like football can put you at risk for brain trauma. That can make seizures worse. Other sports to avoid include skydiving and hang gliding. People with epilepsy should exercise with caution when the weather is very hot. That’s because high heat and dehydration can trigger.
#7. Alcohol can be dangerous for a person with epilepsy because:
Ans D .
Alcohol can be dangerous when taken with sedatives such as phenobarbital. Mixing alcohol with these medicines can lead to coma or death. Drinking large amounts of alcohol can increase the risk for seizures. Even having a drink or two a day (moderate drinking) may affect you.
#8. How does a healthcare provider diagnose epilepsy?
Ans D .
One of the most important factors in diagnosing epilepsy is a person’s history of seizures. The EEG may see brain wave patterns that may mean seizures. A PET scan may help the doctor find out which areas of the brain are affected by the seizures, but it is not needed for the diagnosis. Other imaging tests such as MRI are more often used to find areas of the brain that may have been previously damaged or to find growths that might be causing the seizures.Anti-epileptic or anticonvulsant medicines are the most common treatments for epilepsy. These medicines can prevent seizures from occurring. They must be taken carefully to keep the correct level of the medicine in the body to prevent seizures. If medicine does not work, healthcare providers may turn to surgery, a special ketogenic diet, or an implanted device that stimulates the vagus nerve leading to the brain.
#9. Which is the most common treatment for epilepsy?
Ans C. Medication.
Anti-epileptic or anticonvulsant medicines are the most common treatments for epilepsy. These medicines can prevent seizures from occurring. They must be taken carefully to keep the correct level of the medicine in the body to prevent seizures. 70 to 80 percent of seizures respond to antiepileptics .if not presurgical evaluation for refractory epilepsy should be carried out .If medicine does not work, healthcare providers may turn to surgery, a special ketogenic diet, or an implanted device that stimulates the vagus nerve leading to the brain.
#10. How many seizures must a patient have before a diagnosis of epilepsy is considered?
In clinical practice, epilepsy is considered to be present if any of the following conditions are present
- least two unprovoked (or reflex) seizures occurring more than 24 hours apart.
- One unprovoked (or reflex) seizure and a probability of further seizures similar to the general recurrence risk (at least 60%) after two unprovoked seizures, occurring over the next 10 years
#11. What are the three basic underlying causes of epileptic seizures?
There are many possible etiologies that may lead to the development of seizures or the specific diagnosis of epilepsy. Epileptic seizures have three basic underlying causes: genetic, structural/metabolic, and unknown. For up to half of people with epilepsy, a cause is not known . Some cases of epilepsy are of a genetic origin, but other forms of epilepsy are caused by structural or metabolic defects, which themselves may or may not have a genetic origin. Other cases of epilepsy do not have any identifiable cause. Similar to structural/metabolic defects, the unidentified causes may have a heritable component.
#12. An aura of epilepsy usually lasts for
The three generally recognized phases of a seizure are the prodrome (or preictal), ictal, and postictal stages . Not all patients experience, nor do all seizures include, every phase. The prodromal phase can last several days preceding a seizure. The prodrome is generally characterized as malaise or emotional changes . An aura occurs immediately prior to a seizure, usually lasting a few seconds. Patients often describe an aura as a warning. An aura may be autonomic or it may involve the auditory, olfactory, sensory, or visual senses. The description of an aura can vary and may include weakness, an epigastric sensation, a sense of fear, visual hallucinations, aphasia, headache, feelings of being hot or cold, or sensing unpleasant odors . If a patient experiences auras (and not all do), the auras are usually fairly consistent in that individual. However, auras may vary in the same patient, and the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may alter or obscure the aura.
#13. The majority of patients with epilepsy experience
Ans A .
Focal seizures (previously referred to as “partial seizures”) are the more common classification and originate in a circumscribed area or areas of the brain (i.e., a localized brain disturbance). This type of seizure occurs in 75% to 80% of patients with epilepsy . Focal-onset seizures vary in terms of manifestations and severity and can result in changes in motor, sensory, and emotional functions, with or without impairment of consciousness. Focal seizures are further described according to symptoms and brain involvement . Focal seizures should be classified by the earliest prominent feature (with the exception of a focal behavior arrest seizure) .
#14. Psychogenic pseudoseizures are
Psychogenic pseudoseizures can be difficult to diagnose accurately and often require simultaneous EEG and video monitoring. The patient often relates a history of sexual abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder, or other psychologic trauma . The seizures may appear very similar to an epileptic seizure, but careful history and seizure descriptions are crucial to an accurate diagnosis. Frontal lobe epilepsy is often confused with pseudoepileptic seizures. Pseudoepileptic attacks have no physiologic CNS abnormalities. Injuries are uncommon with pseudoseizures. When eliciting the seizure description from the patient or witness, every detail can be important.
#15. Lumbar puncture is a useful part of what aspect of diagnosis of epilepsy?
During an initial evaluation of a patient, a comprehensive laboratory profile should be completed. The laboratory results can assist in determining an etiology for the patient’s seizures and aid in treatment decisions. If a causative factor is discovered, treatment will be essential to correct the underlying disorder. Otherwise, the laboratory results are useful in ascertaining which AED will be the most opportune for the patient. Initial laboratory evaluations should include electrolytes, a comprehensive metabolic panel, complete blood count (CBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and liver function tests. If the history is suggestive, then toxic screens for drugs, alcohol, and toxin levels, such as lead, may be useful. A lumbar puncture may be performed to help rule out an infectious etiology of a seizure. In addition, measuring the pressure of cerebral spinal fluid is useful in the diagnosis of a possible mass lesion. Laboratory analysis of the cerebral spinal fluid may also be of benefit .
#16. The ketogenic diet is high in
Ans A .
The theory behind the ketogenic diet is that it has the same effect on the body as fasting; that is, the body is forced to utilize fat as energy instead of glucose. This can increase ketosis, with a subsequent rise in serum ketones. If a patient’s seizures are not controlled on usual medications or if the adverse effects of medications are numerous, the ketogenic diet may be considered. This diet should be prescribed and monitored by a physician in collaboration with a nutritionist.
#17. Complications during a seizure can include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Complications from seizures are varied and numerous. Patients can sustain injuries, both physical and neurologic. A patient with any type of seizure may sustain a physical injury, especially during impaired consciousness. Patients may experience abrasions, bruises, broken bones, burns, and oral lacerations, including tongue and cheek injuries. Other patients may experience a severe head injury or other trauma with sudden falls to the floor or falls from heights.
#18. When a patient is having a seizure, an appropriate action is to
Epilepsy is a chronic disorder and often requires long-term management. The patient and family should be encouraged to obtain information about epilepsy through self-education. Local epilepsy organizations often provide written materials and information via other media. Frequently, the patient’s family members or other significant persons require as much education as the patient because they will be observing the patient during the actual events. These significant persons should be educated to care for the patient during and after a seizure. They should be instructed to stay with the patient until he or she is conscious, time the seizure duration, and provide for the patient’s safety. If consciousness returns without further incident and the seizure ends in less than five minutes, then the convulsion is considered to be uncomplicated and emergency attention is not necessary. In general, after a period of rest, the patient is able to resume caring for him or herself . The spouse or other significant person is a crucial asset for the patient and can assist in differentiating between an emergency and an uncomplicated seizure, even though, to the general public, all seizures may appear to be emergencies. The assisting person is important in the prevention of injury and can also help the patient maintain an accurate seizure calendar and ensure medications are taken appropriately.
#19. When making decisions regarding driving restrictions for patients with epilepsy, the most important consideration is the
For individuals with epilepsy, the safe operation of a motor vehicle is a complex issue. The caregiver must try to achieve a balance between providing the best care to the patient and providing the patient with the autonomy and freedom that often coincides with driving. Safety must be the highest priority for the patient and for other individuals. This issue is further complicated by a variety of state statutes and regulations.
#20. Supplementing with ____ during pregnancy may mitigate possible risks associated with antiepileptic drug use in mothers with epilepsy
#21. Which type of diet may provide insight into new targets for anti-epileptic drug design and therapeutic approaches?
#22. When someone is having a tonic clonic seizure you must always.
Ans B .
It is important when someone is having a tonic clonic seizure to make the area safe, cushion the head, time the seizure, and to place the person in a recovery position once the seizure has stopped. Remain calm. A tonic clonic seizure generally lasts for about 2-3 minutes.
#23. For most people with epilepsy, their seizures are controlled by
Ans D .
Anti-epileptic medication (AEDs) does not cure epilepsy but it can control it. About 50% of people with epilepsy will achieve total seizure control using AEDs, whilst a further 20-30% will achieve very good control. Understanding personal epilepsy triggers and maintaining a good healthy life style will help to minimize or even help control the occurrence of seizures.
#24. Which of the following types of seizures consist of brief episodes (< 20 sec) of impaired consciousness with no aura or postictal confusion?
Ans is C.
Absence seizures are brief, common around 5 to 10 years of age,lasts for few seconds and can happend many times ain a day and confused with day dreaming .
#25. What is newer definition of status epilepticus?
#26. What us true about SUDEP?